It would be really helpful if you have some document, like a promissory note, etc. that would enable you to prove that the money that you lent, was infact supposed to be returned on so and so date.
Even if you don't, no matter. The period of limitation for the recovery of debt is 3 years. The period of limitation runs from the date on which the debt was supposed to be paid back. In case there was no such clearly demarcated date of return of payment, the period of limitation would run from the last time the debtor had acknowledged the debt in question. As you can see, time is running out for you steadily, so you will have to act fast. Try contacting your friend, and getting him to acknowledge that he owes you money, which has to be on record, for evidential purposes. That would refresh the period of limitation and would give you more time to initiate legal proceedings.
You can file a money suit under Order 37 of the Civil Procedure Code, but to tell you the truth, it is a cumbersome process, and might take years, unless you have a decent and trusted advocate on your side. If the amount is below ten to fifteen lakhs, file before a civil judge. Most high courts will entertain claims above that amount, though recently the Delhi High Court has altered its pecuniary jurisdiction to only claims above Rs. 2 crores. Kindly verify the pecuniary jurisdiction of the courts in your state, before filing the claim.
I would also recommend filing a criminal case under S. 405/406 and S. 420 (Criminal breach of trust and Cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property, respectively) as an additional measure. The criminal charges will not stand in trial, but the judge will accept the case, and knowing he is embroiled in a criminal case, will encourage your friend to pay up faster, unless he is a seasoned debt defaulter.
Please find an advocate you can trust and who will not delay the case simply for his/her own benefit.