- Advocates Act
- Anand Marriage Act
- Arbitration and Conciliation Act
- Arms Act
- Bankers Book Evidence Act
- Banking Regulation Act
- Central Excise Act
- Central Sales Tax Act
- Central Vigilance Commission Act
- Child Marriage Restraint Act
- Cinematograph Act
- Citizenship Act
- Competition Act
- Consumer Protection Act
- Contempt of Courts Act
- Copyright Act
- Criminal Law Amendment Act
- Customs Act
- Customs Tariff Act
- Delhi Land Reforms Act
- Delhi Rent Control Act
- Delhi Sales Tax Act
- Dowry Prohibition Act
- Drugs and Cosmetics Act
- Electricity Act
- Employees State Insurance Act
- Equal Remuneration Act
- Essential Commodities Act
- Explosives Act
- Factories Act
- Family Courts Act
- Foreign Exchange Management Act
- Forest Conservation Act
- General Clauses Act
- Gift Tax Act
- Guardians and Wards Act
- Hindu Marriage Act
- Hindu Succession Act
- Immoral Traffic Prevention Act
- Income Tax Act
- Indian Contract Act
- Indian Divorce Act
- Indian Evidence Act
- Indian Penal Code
- Indian Trusts Act
- Industrial Disputes Act
- Information Technology Act
- Juvenile Justice Act
- Land Acquisition Act
- Limitation Act
- Minimum Wages Act
- Motor Vehicles Act
- National Green Tribunal Act
- Negotiable Instruments Act
- Notaries Act
- Partnership Act
- Patents Act
- Payment of Bonus Act
- Payment of Gratuity Act
- Payment of Wages Act
- Plantation Labour Act
- Press and Registration of Books Act
- Prevention of Corruption Act
- Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act
- Prevention of Money Laundering Act
- Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act
- Public Liability Insurance Act
- Registration Act
- Representation of People Act
- Reserve Bank of India Act
- Restitution of Conjugal Rights in Hindu Marriage Act
- Right To Education Act
- Sale of Goods Act
- Societies Registration Act
- Special Marriage Act
- Specific Relief Act
- The Code of Criminal Procedure
- The Court Fees Act
- The Dowry Prohibition Act
- The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act
- The Probation of Offenders Act
- The Sick Industrial Companies Act
- Trade Marks Act
- Transfer of Property Act
- Wealth Tax Act
Language of record and judgment
(1) Every such record and judgment shall be written in the language of the Court.
(2) The High Court may authorise any Magistrate empowered to try offences summarily to prepare the aforesaid record or judgment or both by means of an officer appointed in this behalf by the Chief Judicial Magistrate, and the record or judgment so prepared shall be signed by such Magistrate.
Reciprocal arrangements regarding processes
(1) Where a Court in the territories to which this Code extends (hereafter in this section referred to as the said territories desires that—
(a) a summons to an accused person, or
(b) a warrant for the arrest of an accused person, or
(c) a summons to any person requiring him to attend and produce a document or other thing, or to produce it, or
(d) a search-warrant, issued by it shall be served or executed at any place,—
(i) within the local jurisdiction of a Court in any State or area in India outside the said territories, it may send such summons or warrant in duplicate by post or otherwise, to the presiding officer of that Court to be served or executed; and where any summons referred to in clause (a) or clause (c) has been so served, the provisions of section 68 shall apply in relation to such summons as if the presiding officer of the Court to whom it is sent were a Magistrate in the said territories;
(ii) in any country of place outside India in respect of which arrangements have been made by the Central Government with the Government of such country or place for service or execution of summons or warrant in relation to criminal matters (hereafter in this section referred to as the contracting State), it may send such summons or warrant in duplicate in such form, directed to such Court, Judge or Magistrate, and sent to such authority for transmission, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf.
(2) Where a Court in the said territories has received for service or execution—
(a) a summons to an accused person, or
(b) a warrant for the arrest of an accused person, or
(c) a summons to any person requiring him to attend and produce a document or other things or to produce it, or
(d) a search-warrant, issued by—
(i) a Court in any State or are in India outside the said territories;
(ii) a Court, Judge or Magistrate in a contracting State, it shall cause the same to be served or executed as if it were a summons or warrant received by it from another Court in the said territories for service or execution within its local jurisdiction; and where—
(i) a warrant of arrest has been executed, the person arrested shall, so far as possible, be dealt with in accordance with the procedure prescribed by sections 80 and 81;
(ii) a search warrant has been executed, the things found in the search shall, so far as possible, be dealt with in accordance with the procedure prescribed by section 101:
Provided that in a case where a summons or search warrant received from a contracting State has been executed, the documents or things produced or things found in the search shall be forwarded to the Court issuing the summons or search warrant through such authority as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf.
Section 105A. Definitions—In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires,
(a) “contracting State” means any country or place outside India in respect of which arrangements have been made by the Central Government with the Government of such country through a treaty or otherwise;
(b) “identifying” includes establishment of a proof that the property was derived from, or used in, the Commission of an offence;
(c) “proceeds of crime” means any property derived or obtained directly or indirectly, by any person as a result of criminal activity (including crime involving currency transfers) or the value of any such property;
(d) “property” means property and assets of every description whether corporeal or incorporeal, movable or immovable tangible or intangible and deeds and instruments evidencing title to, or interest in, such property or assets derived or used in the Commission of an offence and includes property obtained through proceeds of crime;
(e) “tracing” means determining the nature source, disposition, movement, title or ownership of property.
Section 105B. Assistance in securing transfer of persons
(1) Where a Court in India, in relation to a criminal matter, desires that a warrant for arrest of any person to attend or produce a document or other thing issued by it shall be executed in any place in a contracting State, it shall send such warrant in duplicate in such form to such Court, Judge or Magistrate through such authority, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf and that Court, Judge or Magistrate, as the case may be, shall cause the same to be executed.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Code, if, in the course of an investigation or any inquiry into an offence, an application is made by the investigating officer or any officer superior in rank to the investigating officer that the attendance of a person who is in any place in a contracting State is required in connection with such investigation or inquiry and the Court is satisfied that such attendance is so required, it shall issue a summons or warrant, in duplicate, against the said person to such Court, Judge or Magistrate, in such form as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf, to cause the same to be served or executed.
(3) Where a Court in India, in relation to a criminal matter, has received a warrant for arrest of any person requiring him to attend or attend and produce a document or other thing in that Court or before any other investigating agency, issued by a Court, Judge or Magistrate in a contracting State, the same shall be executed as if it is the warrant received by it from another Court in India for execution within its local limits
(4) Where a person transferred to a contracting State pursuant to sub-section (3) is a prisoner in India, the Court in India or the Central Government may impose such conditions as that Court or Government deems fit.
(5) Where the person transferred to India pursuant to sub-section (1), or sub-section (2) is a prisoner in a contracting State, the Court in India shall ensure that the conditions subject to which the prisoner is transferred to India are complied with and such prisoner shall be kept in such custody subject to such conditions as the Central Government may direct in writing.
Section 105C. Assistance in relation to orders of attachment or forfeiture of property
(1) Where a Court in India has reasonable grounds to believe that any property obtained by any person is derived or obtained, directly or indirectly, by such person from the commission of an offence, it may make an order of attachment or forfeiture of such property, as it may deem fit under the provisions of sections 105D to 105J (both inclusive).
(2) Where the Court has made an order for attachment or forfeiture of any property under sub- section (1), and such property is suspected to be in a contracting State, the Court may issue a letter of request to a Court or an authority in the contracting State for execution of such order.
(3) Where a letter of request is received by the Central Government from a Court or an authority in a contracting State requesting attachment or forfeiture of the property in India, derived or obtained, directly or indirectly, by any person from the commission of an offence committed in that contracting State, the Central Government may forward such letter of request to the Court, as it thinks fit, for execution in accordance with the provisions of sections 105D to 105J (both inclusive) or, as the case may be, any other law for the time being in force.
Section 105D. Identifying unlawfully acquired property
(1) The Court shall, under sub-section (1), or on receipt of a letter of request under sub-section (3) of section 105C, direct any police officer not below the rank of Sub-Inspector of Police to take all steps necessary for tracing and identifying such property.
(2) The steps referred to in sub-section (1) may include any inquiry, investigation or survey in respect of any person, place, property, assets, documents, books of account in any bank or public financial institutions or any other relevant matters
(3) Any inquiry, investigation or survey referred to in sub-section (2) shall be carried out by an officer mentioned in sub-section (1) in accordance with such directions issued by the said Court in this behalf.
Section 105E. Seizure or attachment of property
(1) Where any officer conducting an inquiry or investigation under section 105D has a reason to believe that any property in relation to which such inquiry or investigation is being conducted is likely to be concealed, transferred or dealt with in any manner which will result in disposal of such property, he may make an order for seizing such property and where it is not practicable to seize such property, he may make an order of attachment directing that such property shall not be transferred or otherwise dealt with, except with the prior permission of the officer making such order, and a copy of such order shall be served on the person concerned.
(2) Any order made under sub-section (1) shall have no effect unless the said order is confirmed by an order of the said Court, within a period of thirty days of its being made.
Section 105F. Management of properties seized or forfeited under this Chapter
(1) The Court may appoint the District Magistrate of the area where the property is situated, or any other officer that may be nominated by the District Magistrate, to perform the functions of an Administrator of such property.
(2) The Administrator appointed under sub-section (1) shall receive and manage the property in relation to which the order has been made under sub-section (1) of section 105E or under section 105H in such manner and subject to such conditions as may be specified by the Central Government.
(3) The Administrator shall also take such measures, as the Central Government may direct, to dispose of the property which is forfeited to the Central Government.
Section 105G. Notice of forfeiture of property
(1) If as a result of the inquiry, investigation or survey under section 105D, the Court has reason to believe that all or any of such properties are proceeds of crime, it may serve a notice upon such person (hereinafter referred to as the person affected) calling upon him within a period of thirty days specified in the notice to indicate the source of income, earning or assets, out of which or by means of which he has acquired such property, the evidence on which he relies and other relevant information and particulars, and to show cause why all or any of such properties, as the case may be, should not be declared to be proceeds of crime and forfeited to the Central Government.
(2) Where a notice under sub-section (1) to any person specifies any property as being held on behalf of such person by any other person, a copy of the notice shall also be served upon such other person.
Section 105H. Forfeiture of property in certain cases
(1) The Court may, after considering the explanation, if any, to the show-cause notice issued under section 105G and the material available before it and after giving to the person affected (and in a case where the person affected holds any property specified in the notice through any other person, to such other person also) a reasonable opportunity of being heard, by order, record a finding whether all or any of the properties in question are proceeds of crime:
Provided that if the person affected (and in a case where the person affected holds any property specified in the notice through any other person such other person also) does not appear before the Court or represent his case before it within a period of thirty days specified in the show-cause notice, the Court may proceed to record a finding under this sub-section ex parte on the basis of evidence available before it.
(2) Where the Court is satisfied that some of the properties referred to in the show cause notice are proceeds of crime but it is not possible to identify specifically such properties, then, it shall be lawful for the Court to specify the properties which, to the best of its judgement, are proceeds of crime and record a finding accordingly under sub-section (1).
(3) Where the Court records a finding under this section to the effect that any property is proceeds of crime, such property shall stand forfeited to the Central Government free from all encumbrances.
(4) Where any shares in a company stand forfeited to the Central Government under this section, then, the company shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) or the articles of association of the company, forthwith register the Central Government as the transferee of such shares.
Section 105I. Fine in lieu of forfeiture
(1) Where the Court makes a declaration that any property stands forfeited to the Central Government under section 105H and it is a case where the source of only a part of such property has not been proved to the satisfaction of the Court, it shall make an order giving an option to the person affected to pay, in lieu of forfeiture, a fine equal to the market value of such part.
(2) Before making an order imposing a fine under sub-section (1), the person affected shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.
(3) Where the person affected pays the fine due under sub-section (1), within such time as may be allowed in that behalf, the Court may, by order, revoke the declaration of forfeiture under section 105H and thereupon such property shall stand released.
Section 105J. Certain transfers to be null and void
Where after the making of an order under sub-section (1) of section 105E or the issue of a notice under section 105G, any property referred to in the said order or notice is transferred by any mode whatsoever such transfers shall, for the purposes of the proceedings under this Chapter, be ignored and if such property is subsequently forfeited to the Central Government under section 160H, then the transfer of such property shall be deemed to be null and void.
Section 105K. Procedure in respect of letter of request
Every letter of request, summons or warrant, received by the Central Government from, and every letter of request, summons or warrant, to be transmitted to a contracting State under this Chapter shall be transmitted to a contracting State or, as the case may be, sent to the concerned Court in India in such form and in such manner as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf.
Section 105L. Application of this Chapter
The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that the application of this Chapter in relation to a contracting State with which reciprocal arrangements have been made, shall be subject to such conditions, exceptions or qualifications as are specified in the said notification.
Power to order inquiry
On examining any record under section 397 or otherwise, the High Court or the Sessions Judge may direct the Chief Judicial Magistrate by himself or by any of the Magistrates subordinate to him to make, and the Chief Judicial Magistrate may himself make or direct any subordinate Magistrate to make, further inquiry into any complaint which has been dismissed under section 203 of Sub-Section (4) of section 204 or into the case of any person accused of an offence who has been discharged:
Provided that no Court shall make any direction under this section for inquiry into the case of any person who has been discharged unless such person has had an opportunity of showing cause why such direction should not be made.
Calling for records to exercise powers of revision
- The High Court or any Sessions Judge may call for and examine the record of any proceeding before any inferior Criminal Court situate within its or his local jurisdiction for the purpose of satisfying itself or himself as to the correctness, legality or propriety of any finding. Sentence or order, recorded or passed, and as to the regularity of any proceedings of such inferior Court, and may, when calling for such record, direct that the execution of any sentence or order be suspended, and if the accused is in confinement, that he be released on bail or on his own bond pending the examination of the record.
Explanation – All Magistrates, whether Executive or Judicial, and whether exercising original or appellate jurisdiction, shall be deemed to be inferior to the Sessions Judge for the purposes of this Sub-Section and of section 398.
- The powers of revision conferred by Sub-Section (1) shall not be exercised in relation to any interlocutory order passed in any appeal, inquiry, trial or other proceeding.
- If an application under this section has been made by any person either to the High Court or to the Sessions Judge, no further application by the same person shall be entertained by the other of them.
Disposal of case according to decision of High Court
- When a question has been so referred, the High Court shall pass such order thereon as it thinks fit, and shall cause a copy of such order to be sent to the Court by which the reference was made, which shall dispose of the case conformably to the said order.
- The High Court may direct by whom the costs of such reference shall be paid.
Reference to High Court
- Where any Court is satisfied that a case pending before it involves a question as to the validity of any Act, Ordinance or Regulation or of any provision contained in an Act, Ordinance or Regulation, the determination of which is necessary for the disposal of the case, and is of opinion that such Act, Ordinance, Regulation or provision is invalid or inoperative, but has not been so declared by the High Court to which that Court is subordinate or by the Supreme Court, the Court shall state a case setting out its opinion and the reasons therefore, and refer the same for the decision of the High Court.
Explanation – In this section, “Regulation” means any Regulation as defined in the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897), or in the General Clauses Act of a State.
- A Court of Session or a Metropolitan Magistrate may, if it or he thinks fit in any case pending before it or him to which the provisions of Sub-Section (1) do not apply, refer for the decision of the High Court any question of law arising in the hearing of such case.
- Any Court making a reference to the High Court under Sub-Section (1) or Sub-Section (2) may, pending the decision of the High Court thereon, either commit the accused to jail or release him on bail to appear when called upon.
Abatement of appeals
- Every appeal under section 377 or section 378 shall finally abate on the death of the accused.
- Every other appeal under this Chapter (except an appeal from a sentence of fine) shall finally abate on the death of the appellant:
Provided that where the appeal is against a conviction and sentence of death or of imprisonment, and the appellant dies during the pendency of the appeal, any of his near relatives may, within thirty days of the death of the appellant, apply to the Appellate Court for leave to continue the appeal; and if leave is granted, the appeal shall not abate.
Explanation – In this section, “near relative” means a parent, spouse, lineal descendant, brother or sister.
Finality of judgments and orders on appeal
Judgments and orders passed by an Appellate Court upon an appeal shall be final, except in the case provided for in section 377, section 378, Sub-Section (4) of section 384 or Chapter XXX:
Provided that notwithstanding the final disposal of an appeal against conviction in any case, the Appellate Court may hear and dispose of, on the merits.
- an appeal against acquittal under section 378, arising out of the same case, or
- an appeal for the enhancement of sentence under section 377, arising out of the same case.
Procedure where Judges of Court of appeal are equally divided
When an appeal under this Chapter is heard by a High Court before a Bench of Judges and they are divided in opinion, the appeal, with their opinions, shall be laid before another Judge of that Court, and that Judge, after such hearing as he thinks fit, shall deliver his opinion, and the judgment or order shall follow that opinion:
Provided that if one of the Judges constituting the Bench, or, where the appeal is laid before another Judge under this section, that Judge, so requires, the appeal shall be re-heard and decided by a larger Bench of Judges.